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Foreseeson Glossary of Terms

Active matrix
Active-matrix LCDs utilize thin film transistors. TFTs are tiny switching transistors and capacitors, arranged in a matrix on a glass substrate. To address a particular pixel, the proper row is switched on, and then a charge is sent down the correct column. Since all of the other rows that the column intersects are turned off, only the capacitor at the designated pixel receives a charge.

Anti-reflection (AR) coating is a type of optical coating applied to surfaces to reduce reflection.

Aspect ratio
The aspect ratio of a display is the fractional relation of the width of the display area compared to its height. Aspect ratio is expressed as two numbers separated by a colon. Displays with aspect ratios wider than 4:3 are also called widescreen. Widescreen displays are typically of the 16:9 or 16:10 aspect ratio.

A backlight is a form of illumination used in liquid crystal displays. As LCDs do not produce light themselves, they need illumination via a special light source to produce a visible image.

BNC connector
Bayonet Neill–Concelman.  The connector was named after its bayonet mount locking mechanism and its inventors, Paul Neill and Carl Concelman.

Cold-cathode fluorescent lamp. Used for backlighting of LCD displays.

Color  temperature
A characteristic of visible light. Color temperature is conventionally stated in the unit of absolute temperature, the kelvin, having the unit symbol K. Color temperatures over 5,000K are called cool colors (bluish white), while lower color temperatures (2,700–3,000 K) are called warm colors (yellowish white through red).

Contrast ratio
Contrast ratio is defined as the ratio of the luminance of the brightest color (white) to that of the darkest color (black) that the system is capable of producing. A high contrast ratio is a desired aspect of any display. However, there is no official, standardized way to measure contrast ratio. Ratings provided by different manufacturers of display devices are not necessarily comparable to each other.

Generally, changes a signal from one type to another.

Composite video. The format of an analog television signal (picture only).

Display data channel. DDC provides communication between a computer display and a graphics adapter, enabling the display to communicate its supported display modes, such as brightness and contrast.

Digital visual interface. A standard covering the transmission of video between a source and a display device. DVI was developed to replace the analog VGA connector standard. DVI is designed to carry uncompressed digital video data to a display. It is partially compatible with the HDMI standard in digital mode (DVI-D), and VGA in analog mode (DVI-A).

Extended display identification data. EDID is a data structure used by Foreseeson’s displays to describe their capabilities to a video source, and usually includes the, serial number, timings, luminance, pixel mapping, and other data supported by the display.

A type of device used to boost a signal and allow for longer distances.

FC connector
Fiber-optic connector with a threaded coupling mechanism and 2.5 mm ferrule diameter.

Fiber/Fiber optics/Optical fiber
Optical fiber is a flexible, transparent fiber made of a pure glass (silica) not much wider than a human hair. It functions as a waveguide, or "light pipe", to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference.

One billion basic units (bits) of information used in computing or telecommunications.

General purpose input/output

High-definition multimedia interface. The HDMI standard is a set of interface guidelines for creating high-bandwidth connections and transmitting uncompressed digital data between devices.

High-bandwidth digital-content protection. HDCP encrypts the transmission of digital content between the video source and the digital display.

IEEE 1394
A serial bus interface standard for high-speed communications, sometimes using the brand names of FireWire (Apple), i.LINK (Sony), and Lynx (Texas Instruments).

Part of a coding system that rates the degrees of protection provided against the intrusion of solid objects such as dust and liquids.

LC connector
Fiber-optic connector with a snap coupling mechanism and 1.25 mm ferrule diameter.

Liquid crystal display. An LCD is a flat panel display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do not emit light directly, but rather act as a simple light valve.

Light emitting diode, a semiconductor light source.

Multi-mode optical fiber
Multi-mode optical fiber has a relatively large diameter light carrying core. It is usually used for short distance transmissions with LED based fiber optic equipment.

On screen display.

Picture archiving and communication system.

Picture in picture.

A pixel, or picture element, is a single point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable screen element in a display device.  It is the smallest unit of picture that can be represented or controlled. Each pixel has its own address, and is a sample of an original image. On LCD monitors, each pixel is made up of triads, with the number of these triads determining the native resolution.

Pixel pitch
Also referred to as line pitch, stripe pitch, phosphor pitch, or dot pitch.  This is a specification that describes the distance between areas of the same color on the inside of a display screen. In the case of a color display pixel pitch is a measure of the size of a triad plus the distance between the triads.

Response time
Response time is the amount of time a pixel in an LCD monitor takes to go from one value to another and back again. It is measured in milliseconds (ms). Lower numbers mean faster transitions and therefore fewer visible image artifacts.

Recommended Standard 232. The traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting data equipment. It is commonly used in computer serial ports.

A process that converts video signals from one size/resolution to another: usually "up scaling" or "up converting" a video signal from a low resolution to a higher resolution.

SC connector
Fiber-optic connector with a snap coupling mechanism and 2.5 mm ferrule diameter.

Serial digital interface. SDI is a family of video interfaces. High-definition serial digital interface (HD-SDI) is a related version. These standards are used for transmission of uncompressed, unencrypted digital video within professional facilities. SDI and HD-SDI are currently only available in high end video equipment. Various licensing agreements only allow professional equipment to use unencrypted digital interfaces, generally prohibiting their use in consumer equipment.

Single-mode optical fiber
Single-mode fiber has a small diameter light carrying core. It is normally used for long distance transmissions with laser diode based fiber optic transmission equipment.

Streaming is a technique for transferring data so that it can be processed as a steady and continuous stream. Streaming allows users who do not have the capability to download large multimedia files all at once, to start displaying the data before the entire file has been transmitted.

Separate video. S-Video carries standard definition video (typically at 480i or 576i resolution), but does not carry audio on the same cable.

Thin film transistor. The most beneficial aspect of TFT technology is a separate transistor for each pixel on the display. As each transistor is small, the amount of charge needed to control it is also small. This allows for very fast re-drawing of the display.

Transition-minimized differential signaling. TMDS is a technology used by DVI, HDMI, and other digital communication interfaces for transmitting high-speed serial data. TMDS reduces electromagnetic interference over copper cables, and allows for longer cable as well as shorter low cost cable applications.

Video graphics array. Specifically, the display hardware first introduced with computers in 1987, but through its widespread adoption has also come to mean an analog computer display standard, the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA connector, or the 640×480 resolution itself.

Widescreen ultra-extended graphics array is a display resolution of 1920×1200 pixels with a 16:10 screen aspect ratio.